Fungal Infection is a disease caused by microorganisms (fungi), such as yeasts and molds. The fungi are present in our skin and under normal conditions are safe for health.
Mycosis superficial infections are the most common of all mucocutaneous infections and are often caused by the proliferation of micro flora mucocutaneous.
Candida species. They need a moist and warm microenvironment.
Malassezia species. They require a moist microenvironment and lipids for their growth.
Dermatophytes. They infect the keratinized epithelium, the hair follicles and the nail apparatus. Species of Trichosporon, Hortaea (Exophiala or Phaeoannellomyces) wernekii: ringworm.
Causes and predisposing factors for the emergence of fungal infection in humans.
The occurrence of fungal infection is more common in tropical countries. The humidity and temperatures are conducive to the development of yeasts and molds. The immunosuppressive diseases, bad hygiene, moisture, diabetes and obesity are factors that affect the onset of the disease.
Classification of mycosis depending on its location
Tinea capitis is a cutaneous fungal infection of the scalp. The clinical presentation is typically single or multiple patches of hair loss, sometimes with a black dot pattern, often with broken-off hairs, that may be accompanied by inflammation, scaling, pustules, and itching. Uncommon in adults, tinea capitis is predominantly seen in pre-pubertal children, more often boys than girls.
Tinea faciei is a fungal infection of the face. It generally appears as a red rash on the face, followed by patches of small, raised bumps. The skin may peel while it is being treated. Tinea faciei is contagious just by touch and can spread easily to all regions of skin.
Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium. This condition affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about half of all nail abnormalities.
Tinea cruris, also known as ringworm of the groin or gym itch, is a fungal infection of the groin region in any sex, though more often seen in males. It involve the inner thighs and genital areas, as well as extending back to the perineum and perianal areas. It causes itching and burning sensation in the groin area, thigh skin folds or anus. Affected areas may appear red, tan, or brown, with flaking, rippling, peeling or cracking skin. The lessions has sharply defined borders that may blister and ooze.
Tinea manuum or tinea manus is a fungal infection of the hand. In general, it is more aggressive than tinea pedis but similar in appearance. Itching, burning, cracking and peeling are common symptoms. Alternatively, this can be caused by an allergic reaction, known as “dermatophytic reaction or distant reaction”. This occurs when there is a fungal infection in the feet and an allergic reaction occurs to the fungus. That will only disappear when the tinea pedis disappears.
Tina pedis, commonly known as athlete’s foot, is a common skin infection of the feet. The signs and symptoms often include itching, peeling and redness. In rare cases, the skin may form blisters. The foot fungus of the athlete can infect any part of the foot, but more often grows between the toes. The next most common area is the bottom of the foot.
Fungal infection of the sexual organs.
Men: Balanitis (or balanoposthitis) by Candida: it is a superficial erosion, with erythematous or pseudomembranous zones in the area of the glans or in the shaft of the penis.
Women: Vulvovaginitis due to Candida is more common in women with diabetes, in pregnant women or in patients treated with TBA or oral contraceptives. The infection is characterized by the presence of a thick, lumpy, milky-white-yellowish-looking discharge (with the appearance of cut milk) and gray-white pseudomembranous plaques found in the vaginal mucosa. The entire genital area is very inflamed and, in general, the itching is very intense.
They can occur as an isolated episode or as recurrent episodes.
Between 5 and 10% of women suffer recurrent episodes of vulvovaginitis. It is defined as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (CVV), when 3 or more episodes of CVV occur in a year.
Patients respond adequately to antifungal treatment but it fails to prevent future recurrences.
Most women with CVVR do not have known predisposing factors.